German Shepherd Dog

The German Shepherd, also known as the German Blackback (shell), is what people often say-the German Wolfhound. This dog breed is said to be native to Germany. The only thing that can be confirmed is that the dog has been fixed all over Germany in 1880. And used as a shepherd dog. They are agile and suitable for action-oriented work environments, and they are often deployed for various tasks. He was then recruited by the German army during the First World War and served as a military dog. After being nurtured by the German army, it was basically finalized. Because of its tall size, mighty appearance, and strong working ability, it is active all over the world as military dogs, police dogs, search and rescue dogs, guide dogs, sheepdogs, watchdogs, and domestic pet dogs.

German Shepherd Dog

Zoological history

In 1890, the German dog breeders Stephens and Mr. Mael began to improve their breeding morals

China’s ancient shepherd dog-Al Shaqiya dog. It is said that Stefanitz had the idea of cultivating excellent working dogs at the end of the last century. For this reason, he traveled all over Germany to search for shepherd dogs that could fulfill his own wishes. In the process, he often used one A shepherd dog named Greif is used as a breeding dog for his breeding practice, and this shepherd dog named Greif is white. Von Stephanitz, who had a military background, dreamed of cultivating a dog that was neither aggressive nor timid. He first depicted the shepherd dog in his mind on his table and then bred with a variety of excellent dogs until he reached the ideal prototype.

People who love white German shepherds generally think that white German shepherds are pure-bred German shepherds. They are not white fur caused by albinism, nor are they other dog breeds. They are pure-bred German shepherds, and they are only due to Germany. It is caused by the genes of the shepherd dog itself.

In 1899, the first white German shepherd dog was officially registered as the ancestor: Hektor Linkrsheim, the first dog Horand von registered by Captain Stephanitz in the new association Grafrath (Holland-Graffs).

In 1899, Captain Stefanitz discovered Hektor Linkrsheim at the All Dog Breed Show held in Karlsruhe. Hektor Linkrsheim was extremely active. She) made him think that this is a super dog that fits his own ideas. Captain Stephanitz bought the dog, and this shepherd named Hektor Linkrsheim (Hektor Linkrsheim) The dog is the grandson of the white shepherd named Greif, and Hektor Linkrsheim is believed to carry the recessive white gene. It is said that Captain Stefanitz renamed Hektor Linkrsheim to Horand vonGrafrath is also related to his grandfather being a white shepherd.

German Shepherd Dog

On April 17, 1902, the German Shepherd was officially born in Karlsruhe in western Germany. That year, at a dog exhibition, a cavalry captain named von Stefanitz showed people for the first time the fine breeds he had carefully bred through numerous breeding trials. The dog-raising trend originated in the United Kingdom. At that time, the upper class regarded dog-raising as a symbol of fashion and wealth. But von Stephanitz, the breeder of the shepherd dog, went against the trend. He believed that keeping a dog should not only be viewing and entertainment but more importantly, serving society. In this spirit, he established the “German Kennel Amateurs Association” in the same year. The German Shepherd became the most popular army, police dog, and shepherd dog at the time. Many countries used it to help the army and police search for drugs, arrest fugitives, and border patrols. Besides, it is also an excellent shepherd dog and nursery dog.

After the First World War, a large number of German shepherds were introduced to the UK and then quickly lost to all parts of the world. The German Shepherd has become one of the most widely distributed and most popular dog breeds. But the most favorite shepherd dog is the German. There are about 500,000 German shepherd dogs in Germany, 90% of which are raised by families. These dogs become good partners and guards of the residents; the remaining 10% are owned by the police, customs, Domesticated by rescue organizations and other institutions.

However, the shepherd dog also has a history of being used in war. During the First World War, the German Shepherd was sent to the front line to fight; in the Second World War, Hitler had ordered his army to recruit 200,000 shepherds. These rigorously trained German shepherds became the victims of escorts and explosives. The guard dog of the Nazi concentration camp. Later, after the Berlin Wall was built, he also served as a guardian of the border between East and West Germany.

In the peaceful years after the end of the Second World War, the German Shepherd became a movie star and played an important role in many TV series. It was deeply loved by people, especially teenagers. In the TV series “Police Rex”, the German Shepherd has an outstanding performance. The film has been translated into 26 languages ​​and screened all over the world. It is widely circulated, and the German Shepherd is also famous all over the world.

In April 1999, the German Shepherd celebrated its “100th birthday.” The German shepherd dog associations and dog breeders celebrate the 100th anniversary of the “king of dogs in the world” with different forms of celebrations.

German Shepherd Dog

Appearance feature


The German Shepherd is of moderate size with slight extensibility; strong, with strong and developed muscles, and strong bones; the whole body is compact and harmonious. Important proportional data The general view is that the height of male dogs is between 60-65 cm, and the height of female dogs is between 55-60 cm. The body length must exceed the body height by 10%-17%.


This part mainly includes the collocation of the eyes, ears, nose, mouth, teeth, and the whole, which is the “expression” often mentioned in review reviews.

The head size of a German Shepherd is moderate (not a big one). The length of the head should be 40% of the body’s height. The width of the forehead should be one to two to the length of the head. It should not be too long or too thin. The neck of the nose is the same length as the forehead, and the eyes are in the middle (see the schematic diagram) higher than the neck of the nose, that is, the upper part of the eyes is higher than the part of the neck of the nose when viewed from the side. The lower jaw is strong and strong. The front part of the upper line of the bridge of the nose is slightly raised parallel to the maxillary line.


The ears are medium, erect, and straight. Viewed from the front, the width of the neck of the nose is equal to the distance between the bases of the ears. Both inward and outward inclination of the ears is disadvantages.


Medium size, round, slightly protruding, and color are important indicators for measuring eyes, that is, dark black is upper dark red in second… In short, the heavier the eye color, the better.


The shepherd has 42 teeth. There are 20 upper teeth and 22 lower teeth. It has a scissor bite, and the bite force is the best for domestic dogs, reaching 200 pounds. The upper and lower jaws are moderately proportioned. The upper or lower jaw is too long or too short as a defect, which is what we often call covered bite and reverse bite, and congenital toothlessness is a serious defect. The snout must be black, otherwise, it is a serious defect. The soft tissue part of the oral cavity, which is commonly known as the cheek skin, should be darker in color.

The upper jaw, lower jaw

The observation of the head is an important part of judging the quality of the wolf-dog. Many extremely important evaluation indicators are determined through the assessment of each part of the wolf dog’s head. Such as temperament, temperament, courage, attention, look of eyes, color, ear shape, overall expression of the wolf-dog.


The German Shepherd should have a smooth quilt. It starts from the nape of the neck and passes through a well-developed shoulder that can form a straight line. There should be no visible bumps in between. The dog’s back must be strong, strong, and have good musculature. The waist should be wide, the development should be good, and the same should have good muscle tissue. The buttocks must be long, inclined slightly downwards, and the angle to the horizontal is 23 degrees, especially the top should be smooth, without any bumps, and form a natural transition with the starting point of the tail.

German Shepherd Dog

Chest The German Shepherd’s chest must have a suitable width and roundness, and belong and conspicuous. The depth of the chest should account for 45% of the dog’s total height.

The ribs of the German Shepherd must have a proper curvature. Excessive roundness and flatness will be regarded as imperfections.

The lower part of the tail of German Shepherd tail should have thick hair, at least the length of the claw joint, and the ideal length is to reach the middle of the claw bone. When the tail is at rest, the tail should be slightly bent, like a saber. When the tail is lifted and swings, its curvature will increase. It is forbidden to change the shape of the collie’s tail through surgery.

The front legs of the German Shepherd must be absolutely straight when viewed from any direction. From the front, the legs must be balanced. The shoulder blades and upper arms must be the same length, have well-developed muscle tissue, and have a close bone connection with the body. The ideal angle between the scapula and the upper arm should be 90 degrees, but an angle of about 110 degrees is acceptable under normal conditions. At the same time, the elbows must be closely connected to the body, but there should be a distance to keep standing and moving. The length must be 1/3 of the length of the front leg, and the angle between it and the front leg is approximately 20°-22°. Furthermore, it is neither too straight nor angled (more than 20 degrees-22 degrees), so as not to affect the endurance of the shepherd dog.

Claws German Shepherd’s claws are round, with close toes, with semi-circular arches, and the lower part of the claws should have generous footpads, which can be abrasion-resistant, and should not have crispy skin. The dog’s nails are stubby, strong, and black in color.

The position of the hind leg bones extends to the back of the shepherd’s dog. From the back, the hind leg bones on both sides should be balanced. The length of the upper and lower thigh bones is almost the same, and the angle between the two bones is about 120 degrees. . The thighs must be strong and strong, with good musculature, and the paw joints must be strong and sturdy, located on the vertical line of the hind paws.

Gait The basic gait of the German Shepherd is to walk or trot by lifting the front right foot and the rear left foot alternately. To achieve this gait, the dog’s limbs must maintain balance on both sides of the body during the movement. During the forward stroke of the dog, the dog’s hind legs must reach the midpoint of the dog’s body, and the distance between the two hind legs and the front legs. It must be equal, and the dog’s body’s topline does not change significantly when it rushes forward. The height and limbs of the German Shepherd are properly proportioned so that the dog can look relaxed when making big leaps. When the dog rushes forward, the head is forward, the tail is slightly upward, and the movement is stretched and balanced, forming an arc from the tip of the ear through the back to the tip of the tail.

German Shepherd Dog

The skin is tight without any wrinkles.

The standard body hair type of the German Shepherd with body hair is divided into surface body hair and lower body hair. The surface layer of body hair must be dense, straight and hard, and densely distributed. The hair on the head, ears, claws, and legs must be long and thick. The hair on the hind legs can form a rich hairy area similar to “trousers”.

Color The basic color of the German Shepherd’s hair should be black with cloud-like black fur, and its back and face are also black. Furthermore, the breast and ribs of a shepherd dog can be white, but this color is not ideal. A dog’s nose hair must be completely black, too few black hairs on the face, too few black hairs around the eyes, and light or white nails and tail tips should all be considered as lack of pigmentation. The lower body hair of a shepherd should be light gray. White is not allowed.

Life habits


The German Shepherd is a nesting animal. It is used to rest in its nest, and the nest must be clean and comfortable.


1. Canned food

Canned food with juicy meat and soft, with different tastes and biting, can promote the appetite of dogs. But it is high in protein, and usually mixed with dry dog food, calorie, and carbohydrate intake will increase. Moreover, it loses its umami taste after a period of time after opening.

2. Dried meatloaf

The crunchy dry patties added to the canned food not only have bite strength, increase fiber and fat, but also strengthen the palate movement.

3. Dry dog ​​food

Completely dry dog ​​food has balanced nutrition and is conducive to large amounts of storage. Because it contains 4 times the calorie of canned food, be careful not to make too much weight when feeding.

There are several types of dry dog ​​food:

Highly nutritious. Suitable for growing German shepherd puppies, but be careful to choose easy-to-digest.

normal type. For adult dogs, nutrition and calories have been calculated according to the amount of activity.

Low-calorie card type. It is a low-calorie diet food suitable for old dogs, obese dogs, and dogs with insufficient exercise.

For grinding teeth. A large, crunchy dry food that stabilizes the gums and removes calculus.

4. Half-life food

This kind of food is similar to cheese, and the calorie volume is 3 times that of canned food. But the content of carbohydrates is so high that dogs with diabetes don’t like it. Just like dry dog ​​food, leaving it outside for a day will not affect its taste. You can feed it to gluttonous old dogs in small amounts, according to their exercise volume.

5. Bite

This is a bone-like jelly made from a bovine bone meal. Dogs need to grind their teeth frequently, but if the glue is too small, it will be swallowed in one bite. The chicken bones are thin and brittle, which can easily damage the mouth and stomach. The big beef bones are too hard and may break the teeth, so this is a very suitable food.

Growth and reproduction

Mating age

Many experienced breeders believe that the bitch is in the third heat, but some dogs are in heat every 4 months, so we should wait at least until 21 months old, that is, around 2 years old. In Germany, a bitch cannot give birth when it does not meet the HD standards and has not obtained the breeding qualification. When these requirements are met, it is at least 2 years old.

The female dog’s estrus cycle is 4.5-5 months, and the maximum is no more than 6 months. Of course, seasons and weather also play a big role. The estrus period of a bitch has a lot to do with the surrounding environment and climate laws. If you want a female dog to breed, you should accurately record the time and number of days of each estrus to calculate the most ideal pairing time.

Mating time

Generally speaking, the most ideal mating time is the 12th day of the female dog’s estrus. Some individual female dogs only have 12-14 days of estrus, which is another matter.

Some dogs can be bred on the 6-7th day of estrus, and some dogs will not let the male dog touch her before the 16-17th day of estrus. Therefore, there is no uniform law. The breeder must make accurate records by himself, at least knowing the number of days each time his dog is in heat.

Experienced breeders believe that when the bloodshed by the bitch turns pale red and becomes thinner, it can be bred. Some people think that when the owner strokes the bitch’s tail root or pubic area, the bitch’s tail takes the initiative to move sideways, which is a sign that it can be bred. These methods are effective in most cases, but if you rely entirely on them, sometimes it will delay the best time for breeding.

The safest way is to have a male dog test the reaction of the female dog. If the female dog takes the initiative to tease the male dog and turns the tail sideways, it can be mated.

Puppy breeding

1. Nutrition is necessary to maintain the growth and development of German Shepherd Dogs and other life activities. Mainly refers to protein, fat, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, etc.

2. Feed is divided into animal feed, plant feed, seasonings, additives, and commercial feeds. Animal feed is the staple food of dogs. Such as commonly used beef, milk, eggs, fish, livestock and poultry offal, etc. Among the meats, beef is the best. Plant-based feed is mainly rice, such as rice, millet, wheat, sorghum rice, and corn. There are also vegetables such as spinach and cabbage. The seasoning is mainly salt, but excessive amounts can cause sensitivity and poisoning in dogs. Additives include minerals, vitamins, trace elements, etc. Commercial feed refers to a series of pellets feed for dogs.

3. Breeding and management of German shepherd puppies: The puppies of the German shepherd who are breastfeeding should be kept warm in late autumn, winter, and early spring, keep the room dry and use infrared baking lamps. The environment around the delivery room should be kept as quiet as possible to prevent the puppies from being squeezed to death by the bitch. Secondly, it is necessary to replenish milk for the puppies in time, grasp the food switch, and gradually wean them. German Shepherd puppies of 2-3 months old need to be managed patiently and meticulously, which has a great relationship with the physical development of the puppies and has a direct impact on the normal development of the nervous system.

Therefore, proper exercise with dogs has a good effect on strengthening bones and muscle tissues, improving internal organ functions, promoting metabolism, and adapting to different climates and environmental conditions. Immunization and preventive deworming are the keys to ensuring the healthy growth of dogs. The appropriate immunization program is the first immunization at 45 days, and then two consecutive immunizations at 10-day intervals. The rabies vaccine is injected at the age of 3 months, and the puppies are dewormed once a month.

The breeding of German shepherd puppies should be carried out at the age of 2-6 months. It is required to achieve strong physical fitness, normal development, strong limbs, and fast and free running and jumping. Bold and flexible, able to adapt to more complex environments, excited, loving activities, a strong desire for cohesion, good attachment, concentrated attention, not leaving the owner at will, not picking and eating anywhere, and obeying the owner’s commands.

Population status

There is a big difference. The display department pays more attention to its appearance, which is commonly referred to as Show Dog, which is more common in China! As the name suggests, the German Shepherd and Shepherd pay more attention to its workability. The colors include Tai Chi color, wolf gray, black, and other common European military and police systems. In recent years, the Chinese military and police have also been put into use! German Shepherd Dogs continue to develop all over the world, but they always maintain an objective and fair attitude to breed. In recent years, a large-headed German shepherd, commonly known as the “hammer system”, has been used in certain areas of China. Animal husbandry was formed by hybridization. In fact, this behavior is extremely irresponsible and immoral.

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