Labrador, also known as Retriever, is a medium-to-large dog breed. It is a dog breed that is very suitable for being selected as guide dogs or subway police dogs, search and rescue dogs, and other working dogs who often go to public places. The province of Newfoundland and Labrador in Canada is named after. Tied with the Siberian Husky and Golden Retriever to be the three most non-aggressive dogs. Labrador’s IQ ranks sixth in the world for dogs.
Personality is loyal, generous, honest, gentle, sunny, cheerful, lively, very high IQ, and very friendly to people. The Labrador Retriever has four colors: black, yellow, chocolate, and off-white. The most common ones are black and yellow. Labrador is the most registered breed in the American Kennel Club. It is especially friendly to children and slightly clingy to dog owners.
The Labrador Retriever is not from the Labrador region as its name suggests, but from Newfoundland.
Because of the heavy dog tax in Newfoundland, Labrador dogs gradually disappeared. According to the British restriction law, this heavy dog tax actually stopped the import of dogs to the UK. Since then, many Labrador dogs and other kinds of hunting dogs mate and bred with each other, but fortunately the unique characteristics of Labrador dogs dominate. In the end, breeders hope to stop this mutual mating and breeding and work out a standard to prevent this dog from crossing with other hounds.
The Labrador Retriever as a separate dog breed was first recognized by the British Kennel Club in 1903. In the UK, no Labrador can be the champion of the show because it is not eligible to participate unless it has a work license that clearly proves that it is also qualified in this field. In the United States, the Labrador has become the main training dog and retriever. In 1931, hunters and breeders established the Labrador Retriever Club, and at the same time showed their dogs in a show competition and achieved obvious success.
The head is refreshing, and the head has clear lines. The broad top of the head makes the head look quite big. The ears hang moderately on the sides of the head, slightly behind. The eyes are medium in size, mostly brown, yellow, or black in color, and they have a very empathetic look. The neck length is moderate and not too prominent. The ribs are well spread, and the shoulders are long and slightly sloping. The chest is thick and good in width and depth. The forefoot is straight from below the shoulders to the ground, and the toes are densely arched. The back ankle is moderately bent, and the length of the limbs is moderate, which is balanced with all parts of the body.
The Labrador Retriever is very smart, alert, and understanding. The personality is docile, stable, neither dull nor overly active. Be kind to people and loyal to people. I like to play, especially like playing games with others.
The fur of Labrador Retrievers is double-layered, and it is very magical, a layer of soft down, which enables them to maintain the temperature in cold water, -a thick and hard outer layer of hair, which has a waterproof function. The coat of a Labrador should be short and dense. No curling phenomenon. The coat colors are mostly black, yellow, and chocolate. The whole body is black, and some Labrador dogs have small white hair on the chest. The yellow coat can range from reddish-brown to light cream, mixed in the ears and the lower layer of hair or the inner layer of the tail; The Labrador is mixed with light and dark chocolate colors.
The Labrador is also a very good guide dog. The trainability and obedience of the Labrador are very good because it is usually very greedy. If it is not trained, it will be difficult to tame, so that it will not listen to its master and destroy household goods. If they are not given enough activity, they will show a destructive side, or become over-energy by avoiding boredom.
The breeding of the Labrador Retriever is roughly similar to that of other dog breeds, but every time it is fed some dog food or biscuits, it is matched with water. Labrador Retriever is a dog breed that is prone to gain weight, so it should be fed with meat in an appropriate amount. Besides, it is necessary to ensure that Labrador Retriever is exercised for 2 to 3 hours a day. In addition to having enough food and drinking water, they also need the care and care of the owner. Therefore, if you want to have a healthy and happy lesbian, you should spend more time with it and give it special care.
Grooming dog hair
The hair should be combed once in the morning and evening for 5 minutes each time.
Pay attention to the sequence of combing: starting from the neck, from front to back, and from top to bottom in sequence, that is, from the neck to the shoulders, then back, chest, waist, abdomen, hindquarters, and then comb the head, and finally, It is the limbs and tail. During the combing process, you should comb one side before combing the other side.
Combing method: combing hair should be combed and pulled quickly in the direction of the hair. When grooming long-haired dogs, many people only comb the long hair on the surface and neglect the combing of the fine hair below. The undercoat of a dog is soft and dense. If it is not combed for a long time, it will form tangles and even cause eczema, ringworm, or other skin diseases. Therefore, when combing a long-haired dog, you should comb layer by layer, turn the long hair up, and then comb the undercoat.
Types of combs: brushes, elastic wire brushes, and long and sparse metal combs. The brush can only make the ends of the long hair fluffy, but fine hair cannot be combed. When grooming long-haired dogs, brushes, elastic wire brushes, and long and sparse metal combs should be used together.
Prevention and treatment of common diseases and self-protection of dog owners
The most serious and common canine diseases are now introduced as follows
Rabies: It is an acute infectious disease caused by a filtering virus. The patient is zoonotic and has a very serious hazard. The mortality rate is almost 100%. There is no medicine to cure so far. The rabies vaccine is the only effective preventive measure. There are two kinds of vaccines to prevent rabies produced in my country: freeze-dried vaccines of rabies attenuated cells and rabies vaccines. The freeze-dried vaccine of rabies attenuated cells is diluted with sterilized water, and 1 ml is injected subcutaneously regardless of the size of the dog. The immunization period is 1 year. For the rabies vaccine, dogs weighing less than 4 kg, receive 3 ml each time; dogs weighing more than 4 kg, receive 5 ml each time, and the immunization period is half a year. Besides, the injection of a five-linked vaccine or a sex-linked vaccine is a good way to prevent rabies and other diseases: Although there are no obvious adverse reactions after the above-mentioned vaccination, it should be injected according to the instructions.
Ascariasis: It is a widely spread intestinal parasitic disease, which seriously affects the normal development of puppies and young dogs.
Pseudorabies: This disease is an infectious disease caused by a variety of domestic and wild animals. The incidence of pigs is high, and dogs are also infected. Dogs are infected by eating beef, pork, rat meat, etc. that are suffering from pseudorabies, or by infection of the dog’s wounds. Sick dogs have a high mortality rate, but they do not excrete the virus from the outside. Staring at the beginning of the illness, depressed, scratching the injured area. The area around the wound was red and swollen, the sick dog groaned, refused to feed, vomited, but a foreign body, pharyngeal paralysis, drooling and died with symptoms similar to rabies. The disease is mainly prevention: dogs are strictly prohibited from entering the pig house, and it is a good strategy to inject pseudorabies attenuated vaccine for puppies over 4 months old.
Canine parvovirus disease: This disease is a canine infectious disease that is infected by the feces, urine, and saliva of sick animals in recent years. Mainly harm puppies. Enteritis-type patients are in low spirits, their body temperature rises, the refusal to eat, vomiting, diarrhea, loose stools, watery stools, and tomato-like smelly stools. They soon die from dehydration. Dogs with myocardial type have mild diarrhea and often die suddenly. Because of difficulty breathing. The disease is easily misdiagnosed as enteritis, dysentery, pneumonia, etc. The mortality rate of sick dogs is 10%-50%. Sick dogs are treated symptomatically by veterinarians. Injection of antitoxin No. 1 has a good effect on this disease. Injecting the canine parvovirus vaccine or five vaccines before the onset is the best way to prevent this disease.
Canine distemper: This disease is an acute infectious disease caused by a virus, which mainly harms puppies between 3-12 months of age. Sick dogs with loss of appetite, vomiting, fatigue, chills, cough, high fever, foul-smelling or bloody stools; bronchitis or pneumonia caused by photophobia, watery, runny nose or pus-like nasal fluid; body spasm-like movements, screaming and running, Foaming at the mouth or falling to the ground convulsions, the course of the disease may be long or short, and the sequelae of hindquarters often become weak after the cure, and some die a few months later. This disease mostly occurs in the cold October-April, with a high fatality rate. The treatment of this disease can be Analgin injection, intramuscular injection of penicillin, or oral sulfa drugs. The vaccination of five-unit vaccines for weaned puppies is the best way to prevent this disease.
Canine infectious hepatitis: This disease is an acute septic infectious disease caused by the canine hepatitis virus. It mainly affects puppies under 1 year old. At the beginning of the disease, the body temperature rose to 41℃, fatigue, thirst, diarrhea, blood in the stool, photophobia, arched back, etc. Puppies have a high mortality rate; adult dogs can survive the dangerous period and recover. The disease is treated with fluid infusion and vitamin B and vitamin C supplementation, antibiotics are injected to prevent infection, and the liver is protected by the oral administration of the Liver Table.
Canine tuberculosis: human tuberculosis, bovine tuberculosis, and poultry tuberculosis. Canine tuberculosis is caused by human or bovine tuberculosis bacteria. Puppies are prone to disease and are also a threat to people. Dogs suffering from open tuberculosis should be culled and buried deeply to avoid spreading infection.
Meningitis: This disease is caused by infection with meningitis pathogenic bacteria. Sick dogs have paroxysmal muscle stiffness or twitching and reflexed horns. Sick dogs have no therapeutic value and should be culled and buried deeply.
Canine encephalitis: This disease is caused by the destruction of nerve cells, canine distemper virus, or the invasion of protozoa in the brain, or other viral infections. The main symptoms are high fever, vomiting, lethargy, stiff neck, convulsions and convulsions, unconsciousness, and death from respiratory failure. Symptomatic treatment can be used in the early stage of the disease; severe cases should be culled and buried deeply.
Pneumonia: The sick dog lacks energy, poor appetite, lying on the ground, drinking water, body temperature of 39.5-40℃. There are obvious signs of pneumonia. This disease can be injected with Antongding to lower the body temperature, and the curative effect of intramuscular injection of penicillin or oral erythromycin is also very good.
Canine mycotic pneumonia: This disease is a fungal infection and also infects humans. Symptoms of fungal pneumonia: cough, difficulty breathing, ascites, diarrhea, severe dehydration, etc.
Dog cold: This disease is caused by rain, cold, over-fatigue, and malnutrition. Sick dogs are anorexia, high fever, tears, cough, rapid breathing and pulse, depression, etc.
The use of elite breed dogs for mating and breeding will consolidate and develop the excellent qualities of dogs in their offspring, and make people’s undesirable shortcomings gradually disappear in their offspring. This is the purpose of selection.
When male dogs and female dogs of the same breed with the same excellent traits mate and breed, not only can they ensure that the breeds of their offspring are pure, but they can also consolidate and develop the excellent qualities of their parents in their offspring. This kind of mating and breeding is called purebred Reproduction. Use a male dog of a good breed to mate with a female dog of another breed. Because they have different good traits, they can get offspring with different good qualities from their parents. This kind of breeding is called interbreeding. The use of two different species of male animals to mate with female animals to breed new breeds or offspring with new traits. This kind of breeding is called mixed hybridization. For example, using male wolves to cross excellent female dogs can breed fierce enemies. A new breed of dog that is docile to the owner.
The best age for breeding dogs to mate for the first time
Animals all have a specific time of sexual maturity, which is not the best age to give birth to offspring. This is also true of dogs. Take medium-sized dogs as an example. They begin to mature sexually at the age of 7-8 months after birth. Although both male and female dogs have the ability to give birth to offspring, their physical development is not sound. At this time, the reproductive offspring are also won’t be too good. For black backs, wolf blues, gorillas, Kunming dogs, etc., the best dog age for their offspring for the first time: bitches should start at 18 or 20 months after birth when their bodies are fully developed, Also has the ability to breed suckling dogs, so female dogs should be bred in the third estrus; male dogs develop and stereotype later than female dogs, so the best dog age for the first breeding should start at the age of two. The breeding age of male dogs can be extended from two years old to seven or eight years old. To obtain good offspring from elite breed dogs, the nutrition of male dogs and female dogs must be strengthened before breeding. Pay attention to proper training and exercise for them. Keep their bodies healthy and keep them motivated to work.
Estrus and estrus
Sexually mature dogs are in heat twice a year. The estrus period in spring is from March to May, and the estrus period in autumn is from September to November. The interval between the two estruses is about 6 months. In the case of female dogs, estrus in female dogs is marked by vaginal bleeding in female dogs: vaginal bleeding generally lasts for about 21 days, but vaginal bleeding in estrus in older female dogs maybe a little shorter for one or two days:
The main characteristics of female dogs during estrus:
1. The labia of the estrus bitch is swollen, hypertrophied, protruding, and initially pink, with obvious congestion and a small amount of mucus with blood flowing out of the bitch’s vagina. As the estrus period continues, the amount of blood flowing out increases day by day, and the color of the blood also changes from pink to deep red: on the 8th day of estrus, the blood volume is the thickest, and the darkest. After the 9th day, the blood volume gradually decreased, the concentration gradually became thinner, and the labia gradually turned dark red. As the swelling of the labia gradually disappeared and wrinkles began to appear, the female dog in estrus entered the ovulation period. The ovulation period lasts about 5-6 days when the female dog in estrus is willing to accept the male dog to climb across. With the extension of the ovulation period, the courtship of the female dog in estrus became more intense. Until the 16th day of the estrus, the female dog began to hate the entanglement of the male dog. At this time, the vagina of the female dog in the estrus still had blood flowing out. By the 21st day, the vagina bleeding stopped, the labia swelling subsided, and the female dog’s estrus ended.
2. The bitch looks excited during estrus. As the estrus period continued, the bitch’s excitement increased, her expression was more drowsy than usual, her bark was louder, and her eyes brightened. In hot estrus, the bitch sits restlessly and loses her appetite sharply. The tied bitch keeps barking in courtship. At this time, if the dog breeder presses the bitch’s waist with his hand or strokes the dog’s tail, the bitch will standstill. , Or tilt the tail of the dog to one side, the dog’s labia is constantly twitching, and the vagina frequently opens and closes. At this time, as with a sexually mature male dog, the hind limbs of the female dog in estrus are spread apart and the dog is actively accepting mating. During the estrus period of the dog, the dog breeder must closely observe the above-mentioned changes and expressions of the estrus bitch, and must remember the day when the bitch begins to estrus (the first day of vaginal bleeding) to calculate the best bitch. The mating day: Only bred on the best mating day can increase the conception rate and litter size of the female dog.
Best mating day and mating
According to observational research and dog-raising practice, it is proved that the estrus period of a normally developed bitch is 21 days, and the 10th to 13th day of estrus is the best mating day. Breeding bitches are most susceptible to conception. Therefore, the first mating is generally carried out on the 10th day of the female dog’s estrus, and then one mating every day for 4 consecutive matings. The last mating is the 13th day of the female’s estrus; or the first mating on the 10th day of the female’s estrus. Mate once every other day, and mate twice on the best mating day.
Regarding the changes in the external genitals of the female dog in estrus, the swollen labia of the female dog in estrus had obviously disappeared on the 10th day of the best breeding day, the color was dark red, and wrinkles appeared around the labia. The dog breeder used his fingers to stimulate estrus In the labia of a bitch, the labia nerve of the dog is very sensitive, and there will be rhythmic contractions. The bitch will instinctively open the hind limbs and appear to accept mating.
Regarding the physiological condition of the female dog in heat at this time, when the female dog receives the male dog to mate and the uterus is stimulated by the sperm, ovulation begins 12 to 14 hours, and the ovulation lasts for 12 to 48 hours. The sperm injected into the female dog’s body by the male dog survives for about 48 hours in the female dog’s womb. Continuous mating or mating every other day during the ovulation period on the 10th to 13th day of estrus of the female dog will achieve the best conception effect.
Feeding and management of pregnant dogs
The pregnancy period of female dogs is 58 to 65 days, with an average of 62 days. Among them, the gestation period of large dogs and medium-sized dogs is about 63 days, and the gestation period of small dogs such as pugs is about 60 days. To ensure that the offspring breeds are pure, in the first few days after mating, the bitch is not allowed to approach the male dogs of other breeds, to avoid impure offspring.
The bitch should be carefully fed during pregnancy, and the feed should be rich in nutrition and sufficient in quantity, allowing it to feed freely. You must also feed some cartilage, fresh green vegetables, cod liver oil, etc.
Pregnant dogs must have appropriate activities. Female dogs in the first month of pregnancy can carry out professional training activities every day;
Starting from the second month of pregnancy, pregnant dogs stop training, are not allowed to jump, and are not allowed to participate in professional activities, but the owner must take him for a walk for two hours every day. Improper activity is very harmful to pregnant dogs.