Saint Bernard Dog

Introduction of St. Bernard’s varieties

The saying that he led Bonaparte’s army through the mountain pass in 1800 made this dog (called Barry at the time) famous in Europe throughout the 19th century. The legendary dog ​​”Barry” has become a typical rescue dog. The direct ancestor of St. Bernard is a large farm dog that is more common in this area. After several generations of breeding according to established standards, this dog was bred into its current breed. Henry Schmeichel, from Holligan near Bern, was the first to publish a pedigree file for his dog in 1867.

Saint Bernard Dog

In February 1884, the registration of Swiss pedigreed dogs began. The first registered St. Bernard is “Leon”, and the next 28 registered are also related to St. Bernards. On March 15, 1884, the Swiss Saint Bernard Dog Club was established in Basel. At the International Dog Conference on June 2, 1887, St. Bernard was officially recognized as a breed in Switzerland, and the conference also issued a breed standard as a constraint. Since then, St. Bernard has been regarded as the national dog of Switzerland.

St. Bernard’s species distribution

The St. Bernard dog is named after the Abbey of St. Bernard in the Alps. In 980 AD, the St. Bernard dog was famous for guarding travelers who crossed dangerous Alpine trails. It is a pity that the initial chronicle cannot be verified either. In the 18th century, the priests of the monastery kept this dog as a guide in the dangerous mountains, searching for and resuscitating the lost. St. Bernard is a short-haired breed. To prevent inbreeding, the Scottish breed was added to produce a furry breed. A St. Bernard dog called “Black Meng”, once saved the lives of 40 people, made the greatest achievement, and died in 1814.

Before 1830, all St. Bernard dogs were short-haired. At first, it was thought that the long-haired St. Bernard dog was better able to withstand the severe cold of the hospice, but unfortunately, ice can freeze on the long hair, and this dog is not suitable for an ambulance. After discovering this fact, the monks gave the long-haired St. Bernard as a gift to their friends, leaving only the short-haired St. Bernard.

As early as 1810, Britain imported some dogs from the almshouse to cross with their Mastiff Mastiff. At that time, the British called this dog “sacred dogs”. Around 1828, this kind of dog was used in Germany. The name is “Alpen dog”. In 1833, the author Daniel Wilson named this dog St. Bernard for the first time, but it was not until 1965 that the name clearly appeared, and in 1980 the name was officially confirmed as the name of this dog.

The origin of the development of Saint Bernard

In the 11th century, at the St. Bernard Pass at an altitude of 2,449 meters above sea level, monks built a lodging house for travelers and pilgrims. There, large mountain dogs have been used for defense and protection since the 17th century. This dog has been recorded in the form of illustrations since 1695, and in 1707, there have been written records about it in the accommodation. This dog was used as a companion dog at the time and was especially used to rescue travelers who lost their way in the snow and fog.

Saint Bernard Dog

The “White Death” published in multiple languages ​​records many life-saving events of this dog. The saying that he led Bonaparte’s army through the mountain pass in 1800 made this dog (called Barry at the time) famous in Europe throughout the 19th century. The legendary dog ​​”Barry” has become a typical rescue dog. The direct ancestor of St. Bernard is a large farm dog that is more common in this area.

After several generations of breeding according to established standards, this dog was bred into its current breed. Henry Schmeichel, from Holligan near Bern, was the first to publish a pedigree file for his dog in 1867. In February 1884, the registration of Swiss pedigreed dogs began. The first registered St. Bernard is “Leon”, and the next 28 registered are also related to St. Bernards. On March 15, 1884, the Swiss Saint Bernard Dog Club was established in Basel. At the International Dog Conference on June 2, 1887, St. Bernard was officially recognized as a breed in Switzerland, and the conference also issued a breed standard as a constraint. Since then, St. Bernard has been regarded as the national dog of Switzerland.

St. Bernard’s Physiological Index

St. Bernard’s height: male St. Bernard’s height at the shoulders is 27.6-35.5 inches (70.0-90.0 cm), female St. Bernard’s height at the shoulders is 25.6-31.5 inches (65.0-80.0 cm)

Saint Bernard’s weight range: male Saint Bernard weighs 110.2-200.7 lbs (50.0-91.0 kg) Female Saint Bernard weighs 110.2-200.7 lbs (50.0-91.0 kg)

Saint Bernard’s head (head, face, eyes, ears, nose, mouth, muzzle, jaw, teeth)

Head: powerful, prominent features, and rich in expression. Skull: Strong, broad, slightly rounded when viewed from the side and front. When alert, the ears will stand up, the top of the skull will form a straight line, and it will slowly tilt towards the well-developed, strong cheekbones on both sides. It drops sharply from the forehead to the muzzle. The occipital bones are well developed and the eye ridges are strong. The anterior depression from the forehead is clearly developed and reaches the middle of the skull. The skin on the forehead forms fine folds on the eyes and sags forward. When he concentrates, these wrinkles are more obvious; in other cases, they are not so obvious.

Stop: Very obvious.

Nose: black, wide, square. The nostrils are large.

Muzzle: wide. The bridge of the nose is straight and slightly sunken.

Lips: There are dark spots on the lips. The sagging part of the upper jaw is well developed, firm, and not excessively sagging, forming a wide curve towards the nose. The corners of the mouth are clear.

Jaw/Teeth: The upper and lower jaws are strong, wide, and equal in length. The scissor bite or forceps bite is well developed, neat, and complete. Close to the lower protruding mouth, there should be no gap between the upper and lower front teeth.

Eyes: Medium size. The color changes from dark brown to walnut. Moderately sunken, friendly eyes. It is best to tighten the eyelids naturally. There is a small fold on the lower part of the eyelid, the third eyelid is faintly visible, and a small fold on the upper eyelid is also allowed. The eye frame is completely colored.

Ears: Medium size, high and wide. The helix is ​​well developed. Easy to twists and turns, triangle, round ear tips. The back edge is slightly straight, and the front edge is close to the cheek.

St. Bernard’s torso (neck, chest, ribs, waist and back, front of the body, skin)

Body: strong and well-proportioned, muscular.

Shoulder: clear structure.

Back: Wide, strong, and sturdy. The top line is straight and flat above the waist.

Hips: Long, almost non-inclined, and natural joint with the root of the tail.

Chest: The chest is deep and the ribs expand naturally, but not barrel-shaped. Does not protrude below the elbow line. Abdomen: Slightly protrude toward the back

St. Bernard’s limbs (front-drive, shoulder, upper limb, glue joint, glue bone, foot, hindquarters, thigh, hocks, joints, and hock nails)

Forequarters: When looking forward, the legs are straight and parallel. Separate properly when standing.

Shoulder: The shoulder blades are flat, muscular, and naturally engage with the chest.

Upper arm: Longer than scapula. The angle between the upper arm and the shoulder blade is not too blunt.

Elbow: Close to the body.

Forearm: Straight, strong bones, lean muscle tissue.

St. Bernard dog character characteristics

are very docile, easy to approach, and very tolerant to children

St. Bernard’s advantages and disadvantages

Saint Bernard is a very large dog with a very docile personality, easy to approach, kind and friendly. It is loyal to its owner, likes to be with children, is suitable for companionship with children, and is very tolerant to children. Easy to train, good at lifesaving, and able to adapt to cold weather. In Denmark, whenever a blizzard came, they stretched out their hands and rescued countless people in distress in the vast snowy field. But it requires a larger space, so it is not suitable for urban breeding. If given enough space, food, and exercise, it can become a good family dog.

Saint Bernard Dog

St. Bernard dog feeding method

Feeding and management of puppies

1. Ensure adequate nutrition and palatability of feed

The feed for the puppies after weaning should be rich in nutrition, containing sufficient protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A, D, etc., and the protein content in the feed should reach 22% or more, of which animal feed should account for 30%; The palatability is better, it is necessary to prepare some thin, soft, easy-to-digest feed, and appropriately add some milk, cod liver oil, etc.

Feed at least 4 times a day. For puppies who are picky eaters or have poor appetites, they should be fed less frequently so that they can maintain a strong appetite for each meal and also provide puppies with plenty of drinking water.

2. Be kind to puppies so that they can quickly adapt to the new environment

Puppies have just left the bitch and entered a new environment. They are often afraid of the environment. At this time, the breeder should caress them. Even if they don’t eat well, don’t be anxious and don’t beat or scold them. After a day or two, once the puppies adapt to the new environment, they will get better. After the puppies are emotionally stable, the breeder can gently touch their coat to make them feel cordial and make them docile.

3. Regular deworming

There are many internal and external parasites in dogs. The puppies’ ability to resist diseases is not perfect, and they are especially prone to diseases, which will seriously affect the growth, development, and even death of the puppies. Therefore, the insects must be dewormed regularly, usually once a month or so. The feces discharged after deworming should be stacked and processed in a centralized manner to prevent environmental pollution or two infections caused by dogs licking their feces.

4. Vaccination

Puppies should be vaccinated regularly according to the characteristics of various infectious diseases when they are 2 months old.

5. Strengthen daily management, train St. Bernard puppies to defecate and sleep in a fixed place in time

Puppies should be fully sunbathing to prevent the occurrence of rickets and rickets. The kennel should be cleaned frequently, bedding should be changed frequently, and kept clean and dry. The skin of puppies is thin and tender, so be gentle when combing the coat, so as not to injure the skin. The daily activity time of puppies should not be too long. According to the individual and weather conditions, 30-60 minutes each time is more appropriate. The puppies should be carefully observed and should be checked and treated promptly after an illness.

The breeding and management of young dogs

Youth dog generally refers to dogs 4-6 months old after birth. This period is the fastest-growing period of St. Bernard dogs.

1. Feed

St. Bernard’s young dog feed requires high nutritional value, good palatability, and easy digestion. In addition to the feed must be rich in protein, vitamin A, D and fat, and other nutrients, special attention should be paid to supplementing calcium, phosphorus, and other essential nutrients that promote bone growth.

At the age of 4 months, do not overfeed each time, otherwise, overweight will easily cause body deformation, which is not conducive to bone growth.

At the age of 6 months, the canine teeth have grown and can be bitten by the bones of the cow. To accelerate the development of the dog’s body, the proportion of protein can be increased in the feed, especially animal protein should account for more than 1/3 of the total protein content, and the proportion of energy feed should be increased. Daily feeding should be regular, quantitative, qualitative, and temperature-fixed, and feed at least 3 times a day. The food should be kept fresh, freshly made, and not fed with rotten and spoiled feed. Tableware should be cleaned after use and disinfected regularly. To ensure the supply of clean drinking water for young dogs, pay special attention in summer, and do not drink residual water from sewage to prevent gastroenteritis.

2. Management

1) Group management. Keep dogs of similar age, sex, breed, and individual condition together. Pick out those who are grumpy and eager to eat, and keep them together with those who can be grouped.

2) Deworming regularly. Young dogs should also be dewormed regularly, usually once a month.

3) Observe. The breeder should strengthen the observation of the dog’s eating situation and usual performance, find out the cause of the abnormality in time, and take corresponding measures. Under the condition of large-scale breeding, it is necessary to prevent the domineering behavior of individual dogs. The size of each dog’s food intake and whether it is full or not depends on the detailed and long-term observation of the breeder. At the same time, pay attention to whether there is any phenomenon of bullying the weak in the dog group. Once found, they should be raised separately.

4) Careful management. It is necessary to do a good job in sanitation inside and outside the house, remove feces and dirt in time, disinfect regularly, and strengthen food hygiene at the same time.

St. Bernard dog identification and selection

Feeding and management of puppies

1. Ensure adequate nutrition and palatability of feed

The feed for the puppies after weaning should be rich in nutrition, containing sufficient protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A, D, etc., and the protein content in the feed should reach 22% or more, of which animal feed should account for 30%; The palatability is better, it is necessary to prepare some thin, soft, easy-to-digest feed, and appropriately add some milk, cod liver oil, etc.

Feed at least 4 times a day. For puppies who are picky eaters or have poor appetites, they should be fed less frequently so that they can maintain a strong appetite for each meal and also provide puppies with plenty of drinking water.

2. Be kind to puppies so that they can quickly adapt to the new environment

Puppies have just left the bitch and entered a new environment. They are often afraid of the environment. At this time, the breeder should caress them. Even if they don’t eat well, don’t be anxious and don’t beat or scold them. After a day or two, once the puppies adapt to the new environment, they will get better. After the puppies are emotionally stable, the breeder can gently touch their coat to make them feel cordial and make them docile.

3. Regular deworming

There are many internal and external parasites in dogs. The puppies’ ability to resist diseases is not perfect, and they are especially prone to diseases, which will seriously affect the growth, development, and even death of the puppies. Therefore, the insects must be dewormed regularly, usually once a month or so. The feces discharged after deworming should be stacked and processed in a centralized manner to prevent environmental pollution or two infections caused by dogs licking their feces.

4. Vaccination

Puppies should be vaccinated regularly according to the characteristics of various infectious diseases when they are 2 months old.

5. Strengthen daily management, train St. Bernard puppies to defecate and sleep in a fixed place in time

Puppies should be fully sunbathing to prevent the occurrence of rickets and rickets. The kennel should be cleaned frequently, bedding should be changed frequently, and kept clean and dry. The skin of puppies is thin and tender, so be gentle when combing the coat, so as not to injure the skin. The daily activity time of puppies should not be too long. According to the individual and weather conditions, 30-60 minutes each time is more appropriate. The puppies should be carefully observed and should be checked and treated promptly after an illness.

The breeding and management of young dogs

Youth dog generally refers to dogs 4-6 months old after birth. This period is the fastest-growing period of St. Bernard dogs.

1. Feed

St. Bernard’s young dog feed requires high nutritional value, good palatability, and easy digestion. In addition to the feed must be rich in protein, vitamin A, D and fat, and other nutrients, special attention should be paid to supplementing calcium, phosphorus, and other essential nutrients that promote bone growth.

At the age of 4 months, do not overfeed each time, otherwise, overweight will easily cause body deformation, which is not conducive to bone growth.

At the age of 6 months, the canine teeth have grown and can be bitten by the bones of the cow. To accelerate the development of the dog’s body, the proportion of protein can be increased in the feed, especially animal protein should account for more than 1/3 of the total protein content, and the proportion of energy feed should be increased. Daily feeding should be regular, quantitative, qualitative, and temperature-fixed, and feed at least 3 times a day. The food should be kept fresh, freshly made, and not fed with rotten and spoiled feed. Tableware should be cleaned after use and disinfected regularly. To ensure the supply of clean drinking water for young dogs, pay special attention in summer, and do not drink residual water from sewage to prevent gastroenteritis.

2. Management

1) Group management. Keep dogs of similar age, sex, breed, and individual condition together. Pick out those who are grumpy and eager to eat, and keep them together with those who can be grouped.

2) Deworming regularly. Young dogs should also be dewormed regularly, usually once a month.

3) Observe. The breeder should strengthen the observation of the dog’s eating situation and usual performance, find out the cause of the abnormality in time, and take corresponding measures. Under the condition of large-scale breeding, it is necessary to prevent the domineering behavior of individual dogs. The size of each dog’s food intake and whether it is full or not depends on the detailed and long-term observation of the breeder. At the same time, pay attention to whether there is any phenomenon of bullying the weak in the dog group. Once found, they should be raised separately.

4) Careful management. It is necessary to do a good job in sanitation inside and outside the house, remove feces and dirt in time, disinfect regularly, and strengthen food hygiene at the same time.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published.

Scroll to Top