The miniature schnauzer (MINIATURESCHNAUZER) belongs to the terrier category and has a body size of 12 to 14 inches. Known as Zweig Schnauzer in Germany, it is a hybrid of ordinary Schnauzer and small dog.
In the United States and Canada, the miniature Schnauzer was once the most popular dog. Miniature Schnauzers are a kind of terriers. They are energetic and lively. Their appearance and character are very similar to their cousins, Standard Schnauzers. They are vigilant and lively. Disadvantages: toy, too thin or rough.
Origin and history
This is a miniature dog breed of Schnauzer. It was first raised on the farm to catch mice, and later it was loved by the noble ladies of the upper class in Europe. Participated in the dog show for the first time in 1899.
is rectangular and long; it starts from the ears and passes through the eyes to the nose. Slightly narrowed.
The ears are high and well developed, with medium thickness. If you cut the ears, the ears should be upright, in a V shape, folded forward, with the inner edge close to the cheek.
The eyes are of medium size, dark brown, oval, and directed forward.
The nose is large, black and plump.
The muzzle is strong, parallel to the head, and the same length as the head. The end of the muzzle is blunt wedge-shaped, with exaggerated bristles and beards. Give the entire head a rectangular appearance. A full bite of white teeth, strong and perfect scissors bite.
The neck is strong, of medium thickness and length, and has an elegant arc shape, combined with the shoulders. The back is strong and sturdy.
The breast width is moderate, and the ribs are well expanded. If you observe the cross section, it should be protruding.
The thighs are strong and the angle of the back knee joint is appropriate. The second thigh, from the knee to the hock, is parallel to the extension of the neck. The feet are small, compact, and round, with thick pads, and very strong black nails. The toes are tight and slightly arched (cat feet) straight forward.
Friendly and curious.
grooming dog hair
Combing hair should pay attention to the order:
Starting from the neck, from front to back, from top to bottom in sequence, that is, from the neck to the shoulders, then back, chest, waist, abdomen, hindquarters, then comb the head, and finally the limbs and tail. In the combing process, you should comb one side and then comb the other side.
Combing method: Combing hair should be combed and pulled quickly in the direction of the hair. When grooming long-haired dogs, many people only comb the long hair on the surface and neglect the combing of the fine hair below. The undercoat of a dog is soft and dense. If it is not combed for a long time, it will form tangles and even cause eczema, ringworm or other skin diseases. Therefore, when combing a long-haired dog, you should comb layer by layer, turn the long hair up, and then comb the undercoat.
Comb types: hair brush, elastic wire brush and long and sparse metal comb. The brush can only make the ends of the long hair fluffy, but the fine hair cannot be combed. When grooming long-haired dogs, brushes, elastic wire brushes and long and sparse metal combs should be used together.
Rabies: It is an acute infectious disease caused by a filtering virus. The patient is zoonotic and has a very serious hazard. The mortality rate is almost 100%. There is no cure for it so far. Rabies vaccination is the only effective preventive measure. There are two kinds of vaccines to prevent rabies produced in my country: freeze-dried vaccines of rabies attenuated cells and rabies vaccines. Freeze-dried vaccine of rabies attenuated cells is diluted with sterilized water, and 1 ml is injected subcutaneously regardless of the size of the dog. The immunization period is 1 year. Rabies vaccine, dogs weighing less than 4 kg, each injection of 3 ml; dogs weighing more than 4 kg, each injection of 5 ml, the immunization period is half a year. In addition, injection of five-linked vaccine or six-linked vaccine is a good way to prevent rabies and other diseases: Although there are no obvious adverse reactions after the above-mentioned vaccination, it should be injected according to the instructions.
Ascariasis: It is a widely spread intestinal parasitic disease, which seriously affects the normal development of puppies and young dogs.
Pseudorabies: This disease is an infectious disease caused by a variety of domestic and wild animals. The incidence of pigs is high, and dogs are also infected. Dogs are infected by eating beef, pork, rat meat, etc. that are suffering from pseudorabies, or by infection of the dog’s wounds. Sick dogs have a high mortality rate, but they do not excrete the virus to the outside. Staring at the beginning of the illness, depressed, scratching the injured area. The area around the wound was red and swollen, the sick dog groaned, refused to feed, vomited, bited a foreign body, pharyngeal paralysis, drooling, and died with symptoms similar to rabies. The disease is mainly prevention: dogs are strictly forbidden to enter the pig house, and it is a good strategy to inject pseudorabies attenuated vaccine for puppies over 4 months of age.
Canine parvovirus disease: This disease is a canine infectious disease that was found to be infected by the feces, urine, and saliva of sick animals in recent years. Mainly harm puppies. Enteritis-type patients are in low spirits, their body temperature rises, refusal to eat, vomiting, diarrhea, loose stools, watery stools, and tomato-like smelly stools. They soon die from dehydration. Dogs with myocardial type have mild diarrhea and often die suddenly. Because of difficulty breathing. The disease is easily misdiagnosed as enteritis, dysentery, pneumonia, etc. The mortality rate of sick dogs is 10%-50%. The sick dogs are treated symptomatically by veterinarians. Injection of antitoxin No. 1 has a good effect on this disease. Injecting canine parvovirus vaccine or five vaccines before the onset is the best way to prevent this disease.
Canine distemper: This disease is an acute infectious disease caused by a virus, which mainly harms puppies between 3-12 months of age. Sick dogs with loss of appetite, vomiting, fatigue, chills, cough, high fever, foul-smelling or bloody stool; bronchitis or pneumonia caused by photophobia, watery, runny nose or pus-like nasal fluid; body spasm-like movements, screaming and running, Foaming at the mouth or falling to the ground convulsions, the course of the disease is long or short, and the sequelae of hindquarters are often weak after healing, and some die a few months later. This disease mostly occurs in the cold October-April, with a high fatality rate. The treatment of this disease can be analgin injection, intramuscular injection of penicillin or oral sulfa drugs. Vaccination of five-unit vaccines for weaned puppies is the best way to prevent this disease.
Canine infectious hepatitis: This disease is an acute septic infectious disease caused by canine hepatitis virus, which mainly affects puppies under 1 year old. At the beginning of the disease, the body temperature rose to 41℃, fatigue, thirst, diarrhea, blood in the stool, photophobia, arched back, etc. Puppies have a high mortality rate; adult dogs can survive the dangerous period and recover. The disease is treated with fluid infusion and vitamin B and vitamin C supplementation, antibiotics are injected to prevent infection, and the liver is protected by oral administration of Liver Taile.
Canine tuberculosis: human tuberculosis, bovine tuberculosis, and poultry tuberculosis. Canine tuberculosis is caused by human or bovine tuberculosis bacteria. Puppies are prone to disease and are also a threat to people. Dogs suffering from open tuberculosis should be culled and buried deeply to avoid spreading infection.
Meningitis: This disease is caused by infection with meningitis pathogenic bacteria. Sick dogs have paroxysmal muscle stiffness or twitching and reflexed horns. Sick dogs have no therapeutic value and should be culled and buried deeply.
Canine encephalitis: This disease is caused by the destruction of nerve cells, canine distemper virus, or the invasion of protozoa in the brain, or other viral infections. The main symptoms are high fever, vomiting, lethargy, stiff neck, convulsions, unconsciousness, and death from respiratory failure. Symptomatic treatment can be given in the early stage of onset; severe cases should be culled and buried deeply.
Pneumonia: The sick dog is lack of energy, poor appetite, lying on the ground, drinking water, body temperature 39.5-40℃. There are obvious signs of pneumonia. This disease can be injected with Antongding to lower the body temperature, and the curative effect of intramuscular injection of penicillin or oral erythromycin is also very good.
Canine mycotic pneumonia: This disease is a fungal infection and also infects humans. Symptoms of fungal pneumonia: cough, difficulty breathing, ascites, diarrhea, severe dehydration, etc.
Dog cold: This disease is caused by rain, cold, over-fatigue and malnutrition. Sick dogs are anorexia, high fever, tears, cough, rapid breathing and pulse, depression, etc.
Pay attention to self-protection
Dogs are beasts, and no matter how spiritual, they are beasts. Therefore, when training police dogs to learn how to arrest, trainers should wear protective clothing. When raising dogs and training dogs, they must always pay attention to their own safety protection and avoid being bitten by dogs. Injury or bitch. Some dogs will attack their owners or bite neighbors and pedestrians due to temporary wild attacks. Those well-trained healthy dogs will occasionally hurt their owners’ hands or legs.
If you are bitten by a dog or bitten by a dog to the extent of bleeding for whatever reason, in addition to routine treatment of the wound, you should immediately go to the local epidemic prevention station for subcutaneous injection of rabies vaccine within 24 hours to prevent the problem. Don’t take it lightly. Keepers in kennels should be vaccinated against rabies regularly. Children in the dog’s house should not approach the dog or kennel easily to prevent the dog’s animal behavior from hurting people.
Breeding and breeding
The use of elite breed dogs for mating and breeding will consolidate and develop the excellent qualities of dogs in their offspring, and make people’s undesirable shortcomings gradually disappear in their offspring. This is the purpose of selection.
When male dogs and female dogs of the same breed with the same excellent traits mate and breed, not only can they ensure that the breeds of their offspring are pure, but they can also consolidate and develop the excellent qualities of their parents in their offspring. This kind of mating and breeding is called purebred Reproduction. Use a male dog of a good breed to mate with a female dog of another breed. Because they have different good traits, they can get offspring with different good qualities from their parents. This kind of breeding is called interbreeding. The use of two different species of male animals to mate with female animals to breed new breeds or offspring with new traits. This kind of breeding is called mixed hybridization. For example, using male wolves to cross excellent female dogs can breed fierce enemies. A new breed of dog that is docile to the owner.
The best age for breeding dogs to mate for the first time
Animals all have a specific time of sexual maturity, which is not the best age to give birth to offspring. This is also true of dogs. Take medium-sized dogs as an example. They begin to mature sexually at the age of 7-8 months after birth. Although both male and female dogs have the ability to give birth to offspring, their physical development is not sound. At this time, the reproductive offspring are also It won’t be too good. For black-backed, wolf-green, Lingti, Kunming dogs, the best age of their offspring for the first time: bitches should start at 18 or 20 months after birth, when their bodies are fully developed , Also has the ability to breed suckling dogs, so female dogs should be bred in the third estrus; male dogs develop and stereotype later than female dogs, so the best dog age for the first breeding should start at the age of two. The breeding age of male dogs can be extended from two years old to seven or eight years old. In order to obtain good offspring of elite breed dogs, the nutrition of male dogs and female dogs must be strengthened before breeding. Pay attention to proper training and exercise for them. Keep their bodies healthy and keep them motivated to work.
Estrus and estrus
Sexually mature dogs are in heat twice a year. The estrus period in spring is from March to May, and the estrus period in autumn is from September to November. The interval between two estrus is about 6 months. In the case of female dogs, estrus in female dogs is marked by vaginal bleeding in female dogs: vaginal bleeding generally lasts for about 21 days, but vaginal bleeding in estrus in older female dogs may be a little shorter for one or two days:
The main characteristics of female dogs during estrus:
1. The labia of the estrus bitch is swollen, hypertrophied, protruding, and initially pink, with obvious congestion and a small amount of mucus with blood flowing out of the bitch’s vagina. As the estrus period continues, the amount of blood flowing out increases day by day, and the color of the blood also changes from pink to deep red: on the 8th day of estrus, the blood volume is the thickest and the darkest. After the 9th day, the blood volume gradually decreased and the concentration gradually became thinner. At this time, the labia gradually turned dark red. As the swelling of the labia gradually disappeared and wrinkles began to appear, the female dog in estrus entered the ovulation period. The ovulation period lasts about 5-6 days, when the female dog in estrus is willing to accept the male dog to climb across. With the extension of the ovulation period, the courtship of the female dog in estrus became more intense. Until the 16th day of the estrus period, the female dog began to hate the entanglement of the male dog. At this time, the vagina of the female dog in the estrus still had blood flowing out. By the 21st day, the vagina The bleeding stopped, the labia swelling subsided, and the female dog’s estrus ended.
2. The bitch looks excited during estrus. As the estrus period continued, the bitch’s excitement increased, her expression was more drowsy than usual, her bark was louder, and her eyes brightened. In hot estrus, the bitch sits restlessly, the appetite drops sharply, and the tied bitch keeps barking in the air. If the dog breeder presses the bitch’s waist or strokes the tail, the bitch stands still. , Or tilt the tail of the dog to one side, the dog’s labia is constantly twitching, and the vagina frequently opens and closes. At this time, as with a sexually mature male dog, the hind limbs of the female dog in estrus are spread apart and the dog is actively accepting mating. During the estrus period of the dog, the dog breeder must closely observe the above-mentioned changes and expressions of the estrus bitch, and must remember the day when the bitch begins to estrus (the first day of vaginal bleeding) in order to calculate the best bitch. The mating day: Only bred on the best mating day can the female dog’s conception rate and litter size be improved.
Best mating day and mating
According to observational research and dog-raising practice, it is proved that the estrus period of a normally developed bitch is 21 days, and the 10th to 13th day of estrus is the best mating day. Breeding bitches are most likely to become pregnant. Therefore, the first mating is generally carried out on the 10th day of the female dog’s estrus, and then one mating every day for 4 consecutive matings. The last mating is the 13th day of the female’s estrus; or the first mating on the 10th day of the female’s estrus. Mate once every other day, and mate twice on the best mating day.
Regarding the changes in the external genitals of the female dog in estrus, the swollen labia of the female dog in estrus had obviously subsided on the 10th day of the best mating day, the color was dark red, and wrinkles appeared around the labia. The dog breeder used his fingers to stimulate estrus. In the labia of a bitch, the labia nerve of the dog is very sensitive, and there will be rhythmic contractions. The bitch will instinctively open the hind limbs and appear to accept mating. Regarding the physiological condition of the female dog in heat at this time, when the female dog receives the male dog to mate and the uterus is stimulated by the sperm, ovulation begins 12 to 14 hours, and the ovulation lasts for 12 to 48 hours. The sperm injected into the female dog’s body by the male dog survives for about 48 hours in the female dog’s womb. Continuous mating or mating every other day during the ovulation period on the 10th to 13th day of estrus of the female dog will achieve the best conception effect.
Feeding and management of pregnant dogs
The pregnancy period of female dogs is 58 to 65 days, with an average of 62 days. Among them, the gestation period of large dogs and medium-sized dogs is about 63 days, and the gestation period of small dogs such as pugs is about 60 days. In order to ensure that the offspring breeds are pure, in the first few days after mating, the bitch is not allowed to approach the male dogs of other breeds, so as to avoid impure offspring.
The bitch should be carefully fed during pregnancy, and the feed should be rich in nutrition and sufficient in quantity, allowing it to feed freely. You must also feed some cartilage, fresh green vegetables, cod liver oil, etc. Pregnant dogs must have appropriate activities. Female dogs in the first month of pregnancy can carry out professional training activities every day; from the second month of pregnancy, pregnant dogs should stop training, and are not allowed to jump or participate in professional activities, but every day the owner must Take it for a two-hour walk. Improper activity is very harmful to pregnant dogs.