bernese mountain dog

Bernese Mountain Dog, English name Bernese Mountain Dog. Belongs to large dogs, three colors, long legs. Firm and harmonious, smart, sturdy and flexible, capable of tasks like dragging or driving herds in the mountains, this is also the origin of this breed. The male dog appears majestic, while the female dog appears gentle. The place of origin is in Europe. Historically, it was once the best helper of the shepherd. With the passage of time, it has become a favorite playing dog. In the early days, it was a variety that was gradually developed in the Bern region of Switzerland to pull goods, cheese manufacturing, and weaving shops.

bernese mountain dog

The coat of the Bernese Mountain Dog is long and short. The upper coat is thick, medium in texture, and the lower coat is short and soft. The coat color is black, white and brown. The ears are medium in size, the tail is medium long, drooping, and cocked when excited. The temperament of this dog is confident, alert and kind, not nervous or shy. Facing strangers, the Bernese Mountain Dog will stand firmly in place and remain cold. Very smart, good endurance, not combative, loyal and easy to train, and also a good family dog.

Historical origin

More than 2,000 years ago, the Roman army brought the ancestors of the Bernese Mountain Dog to Switzerland, and later cross-bred with a native Swiss shepherd dog, and produced four breeds of mountain dogs, the Bernese Mountain Dog is one of them. The Bernese Mountain Dog is a good working dog and can serve as a herding dog and a transport dog very well. In the early days, it was used to pull goods in Berne, Switzerland. In the mid-nineteenth century, the number of Bernese Mountain Dogs began to decline. At the beginning of the 20th century, they were almost on the verge of extinction. Only a small number of purebred dogs remained and bred with short-haired St. Bernards. In 1907, the Bernese Mountain Dog Club was established in Switzerland, and this dog was able to continue its development. Today, the Bernese Mountain Dog has been welcomed by more and more dog lovers.

In the 1930s, because of its large body and strong guarding ability, some people raised this dog, which made its temperament somewhat unstable in some aspects, so the dog was prone to unexplained aggressive behavior. The Bernese Mountain Dog is a good working dog and can serve as a herding dog and a transport dog. It has the characteristics of easy training and was very successful at the exhibition. It may be a fragile giant dog, so it needs to be kept by an experienced owner.

Morphological characteristics

【Body Type】

Height: 58~70cm

Weight: 40~44kg


The expression is smart, lively and gentle. The eyes are dark brown and slightly ovoid in shape, and the eyelids are close to the eyeballs.

The ears are medium in size, set high, and triangular. When resting, the ears hang down to the side of the head. When the Bernese Mountain Dog is alert, the ears are turned forward, the base of the ear is raised, and the highest part of the ear is flush with the top of the head. The top of the head is flat and wide, with slight wrinkles and clear contours. The muzzle is strong and straight. The nose is black. The teeth have a scissors bite.


The head cover is flat, the brows are obvious, the muzzle is strong, the nose is straight and the eyes are apricot-shaped, the ancient emperor is small and medium, triangular, the ears are flat when resting, and the ears are tilted forward when alert. The upper lip of the nose does not have: like bite teeth, the upper teeth are stacked in front of the lower teeth. The body is strong and strong, the back is flat, the chest is broad, the neck is thick: straight and strong, and the hind limbs are well muscled. The toes are round and short, the toes are tightly gripped, and the claws are white.


The thighs are broad, strong and muscular. The rear knee joint is at the right angle, gradually and smoothly tapering downwards, connecting with the hock joint. The hock should be as low as possible, when viewed from behind, the back ankle is straight. The feet are compact.


The fur is dense, of medium length, slightly shiny or neat. Shows a bright, natural brilliance. The Bernese Mountain Dog is a tricolor dog. The basic color is dark black. The markings are rich in rust and clear white.

The Bernese Mountain Dog is an excellent and popular breed. It is one of the 4 Chinese Mountain Dogs that are currently produced in Switzerland. In the early days, the Bernese Mountain Dog was a breed that was gradually developed in the Bern region of Switzerland by sourcing, cheese manufacturing, and weaving shops.

bernese mountain dog

Character traits

Generally speaking, the grown-up Bernese Mountain Dog is a very gentle, polite, and decent dog. They have the following advantages: strong, highly obedient, confident, not afraid of difficulties, and never wild. Sometimes when puppies are very curious and lively, they are never annoying. Many grown-up Bernese Mountain Dogs will become very quiet and will ignore strangers, but will be very excited about people they know, and they will often climb on the lap of others. Also, he is very gentle with children and other animals, making him a master at taking care of children and other animals. They are very sensitive to human nature, so they are also a perfect family dog. The Bernese Mountain is loyal to the owner and stands firm in the face of strangers, staying calm, and is the best working dog.

The difference between Bernese Mountain Dogs and other dog breeds is that they have a strong desire to communicate with their owners. Although there are some similar dog breeds in other dog breeds, in the Bernese Mountain Dog breed, almost every Bernese Mountain Dog has a strong sense of this aspect. Therefore, the Bernese Mountain Dog is regarded as a dog with a unique style and a high degree of intelligence. The Bernese Mountain Dog must not live alone in a cage or back garden.

Basic beauty

The Bernese Mountain Dog has three colors of black, white and yellow. The male dog appears majestic, while the female dog appears gentle.

The dog groomer needs to comb the whole body hair and trim the toenails. Trim the long hairs on the foot pads. Never pull the foot pads apart and pull out the long hairs in between, as this will cause your dog to limp. Lay your feet flat on the table top, and trim the excess hair with scissors perpendicular to the table top ring to show its neatness and beauty. Remove all the stubble on the head, including the eye, face, paws, chin, and mouth. If you use sharp-edged scissors, you need to be extra careful, start lightly, and check frequently; if you use a large shearing knife, you should also be careful to avoid leaving a gap on the edge of the mouth. For newborn dogs, it is best to use ordinary scissors. Wash and dry to ensure that your dog does not touch dirt and other dirt before it is completely dry. In particular, avoid rolling on the spot due to excitement.

Regarding how to dry, you can choose a hair dryer or natural air drying; if natural air drying, you should wrap a small blanket around your dog, and then hold the person in a bedroom with a fireplace or air-conditioning. This drying process takes about 12 hours, sometimes longer . If it is summer, you can sweep out a clean ground and let the Bernese Mountain Dog lie down. While fully sunbathing, the hair will dry. This is also the fastest natural drying method.

bernese mountain dog

Domestication method

The most important feeding period for the Bernese Mountain Dog is 2-6 months old and requires free movement. If it is trapped in a cage for too long, it will affect the development of his skeleton.

It is best to have other dogs play with it so that his limbs can develop freely. During this time, the nutrition of food is also very important.

Feeding food

The Bernese Mountain Dog is a large dog, so in addition to providing high-quality natural dog food for puppies, don’t forget to add some nutritious foods to your pet: such as calcium tablets, calcium powder, beauty powder and vitamins. This breed is not suitable for exposure to the sun.

Fur care

Because its fur is black, if it is exposed to the strong sun for a long time, in addition to heatstroke, the black fur will gradually fade and become hoarse, which is very ugly.

Water is an important source of life for the Bernese Mountain Dog. You will find that they are thirsty easily and drink a lot of water. Don’t cut their fur short when summer comes, because their hair is used to block ultraviolet rays.

Feeding matters

The following nine foods are delicious for humans, but they pose a threat to the health of dogs. They should not be fed or fed less:

1.Chocolate (can be fatal)

The theobromine in chocolate will reduce the blood flow delivered to the brain by animals, which may cause heart disease and other fatal threats. The higher the purity of chocolate, the higher the theobromine content, and the greater the risk to dogs.

2. Onions and green onions (dangerous)

Raw or cooked onions and green onions contain disulfide, which is harmless to the human body, but it can cause oxidation of red blood cells in cats, dogs, sheep, horses, and cattle. May cause hemolytic anemia.

3. Raw or cooked liver (dangerous) A small amount of liver is good for dogs, but an overdose may cause problems. Because the liver contains a lot of vitamin A, it can cause vitamin A poisoning. About 3 chicken livers (or the corresponding amount of livers of other animals) a week can cause bone problems.

4. Bones (dangerous)

Broken bones, such as chicken bones, may pierce the dog’s throat or cut the dog’s mouth, esophagus, stomach, or intestines. If you want to feed bones, use a pressure cooker to boil them. Bone marrow is an excellent source of calcium, phosphorus, and copper. Chewing large bones can help remove tartar.

5. Raw eggs (dangerous)

Raw protein contains a kind of avidin protein, which will deplete the vitamin H in the dog’s body. Vitamin H is an indispensable nutrient for the growth of dogs and the promotion of healthy fur. In addition, raw eggs usually contain germs. Boiled eggs are very suitable for it.

6. Raw meat and poultry meat (dangerous ~ fatal)

The dog’s immune system cannot adapt to artificially raised poultry and meat. The most common Salmonella and Bacillus are very dangerous to dogs.

7. Pork (feeding is not recommended)

The fat globules in pork are larger than other meats and may block the capillaries of the dog. Avoid pig products, especially bacon with sodium nitrate.

8. Milk (not recommended)

Many dogs have lactose discomfort. If the dog has fart, diarrhea, dehydration or skin inflammation after drinking milk, it should stop feeding milk. Dogs with lactose discomfort should consume lactose-free milk.

9. Mushrooms (not recommended ~ fatal)

Commercially available edible shiitake mushrooms and mushrooms are harmless to dogs. But still avoid letting dogs eat it, so as not to develop the habit of eating mushrooms and accidentally eat poisonous mushrooms in the wild.

FCI standard

FCI Number: 45

FCI belongs to the group: the second group: Pinscher and Schnauzer-mastiff, Swiss mountain dog and Swiss cattle dog group

Height: Male Bernese Mountain with a height of 24.0-28.0 inches (61.0-71.0 cm), female Bernese Mountain with a height of 22.9-27.2 inches (58.0-69.0 cm)

Weight range: Male Bernese Mountain weighs 83.8-110.2 pounds (38.0-50.0 kg), female Bernese Mountain weighs 79.4-105.8 pounds (36.0-48.0 kg)

Head (head, face, eyes, ears, nose, mouth, muzzle, jaw, teeth)

Head: The top of the head is flat and wide, with slight wrinkles and clear contours. Skull: When looking forward, the shape is slightly rounded. The anterior groove is not obvious. Eyes: Dark brown, slightly oval, with eyelids close to the eyeballs. Ears: The tips of the ears are slightly rounded, and the ears hang over the head when resting. When the Bernese Mountain Dog is alert, the ears are turned forward, the base of the ear is raised, and the highest part of the ear is flush with the top of the head. Muzzle: strong and straight. The nose is black. The lips are clean, and the Bernese Mountain Dog is a breed with tight lips, and the upper lip is only slightly drooping. Jaw/Teeth: Strong, with a full scissors bite, or a clamp bite.

Trunk (neck, chest, ribs, waist and back, front of the torso, skin)

Neck: Strong, muscular, of medium length. The top line is level from the shoulders to the hips. Chest: The chest is deep and wide, the ribs are well expanded, and the chest reaches the elbows. The back is wide and strong. Strong waist. Hips: wide, with a smooth arc to the base of the tail. Topline: Slowly descend from the neck to the scapula, the line is coordinated, and then run in a straight line. Waist: Broad and strong, slightly narrower than the chest when viewed from the top.

Limbs (front drive, shoulders, upper limbs, glue joints, glue bones, soles of feet, hindquarters, thighs, hock joints, joints and hock nails)

Forequarters: The front legs are vertical and parallel when viewed from the front, and are not too far apart when standing. The forelegs are straight and strong. When standing, the elbows are just below the shoulder blades. The ankle is very slightly inclined. Forearm: Strong and straight. Pastern: When viewed from the side, it is almost vertical and strong; when viewed forward, it is in line with the forearm. Forefoot: Short, round, with very strong, well-arched toes. Neither eversion nor inversion. Hindquarters: Seen from behind, the legs are straight and parallel, not very close. Thighs: Long, wide, strong, and muscular. The lower thighs are long and oblique. Hock: strong, natural angle. Knee joint: The bend is natural and obvious. Metatarsals: almost vertical. The upper melon must be removed (except for countries that are prohibited by law). Hind foot: Slightly arched, but not as good as the front foot, neither eversion nor pronation.


Tail length: Medium, crescent-shaped, and the tail has decorative hairs. The tail will stand up when alert. The white tail is more popular.


The natural working gait of the Bernese Mountain Dog is a slow trot. Of course, it can be faster and more flexible when used for towing or chasing herds. The forequarters are well stretched and the hindquarters are driven strongly, and the topline is kept level. There is no extra action. The corresponding front and rear legs always move in the same plane. When increasing speed, the legs will converge toward the centerline.

Disqualification conditions

Defects: Any deviation from the above points is regarded as a defect, and any dog ​​with obvious physical or behavioral abnormalities is disqualified.

Care method

the first week

During this period, Bernese mountain puppies are most likely to cause enteritis, dog plague, coccidiosis and other diseases. No matter where the Bernese Mountain puppies are obtained from, you should avoid some external stress during the first week of raising. There may be many reasons for the stress of Bernese Mountain puppies, which may include bathing, changing environment, feeding, or improper vaccination, etc. And many Bernese Mountain puppies that already have underlying diseases, the disease will break out at this time.

How should the owner take care of the Bernese Mountain puppies?

Bathing: It is recommended not to take a bath in the first week. If you must take a bath, it is best to take care of it at home.

Going out: Because the Bernese Mountain puppies are less resistant to diseases and are not sure what vaccinations to take, it is best to avoid going out.

Feeding: Choose the appropriate feed, there are many brands on the market, you can choose by yourself. As for the amount and frequency of feeding, remember a basic principle: 4 times a day, small meals, and the shape of the dog’s feces, soft and hard, and the amount of feces should not be too much. That’s right!

Deworming: We will give anthelmintics and nutrient drops to help the growth of Liebern Mountain puppies.

When should I get vaccinations?

After being raised for a week, the Bernese Mountain puppies have adapted to the environment and are growing well.

What kind of vaccination?

Please refer to the dog vaccination table. The veterinarian will follow the vaccination manual issued by the previous veterinarian to give it suitable vaccinations.

Vaccinations given by dog ​​dealers or pet shops, and there is no vaccination manual. Based on our experience, it is recommended to reschedule a new vaccination plan.

When does the prevention of heartworm in Bernese mountain puppies start?

Heartworm disease in Bernese puppies is a prevalent dog infectious disease. It is mainly transmitted by mosquitoes. It is a chronic and fatal disease. There is no other way to prevent it except for oral heartworm preventive drugs every month. .

Below 6 years of age: The prevention of heartworm is carried out at the same time as the first dose of vaccination. The difference is that heartworm is prevented by oral medicine, and one tablet per month is required.

Over 6 years of age: You need to have a heartworm blood test to make sure that you have not been infected before you can start taking preventive medicine. It is also taken by oral medicine for prevention, and it is also one tablet per month.

Doctor’s advice

Repel roundworms, hookworms, and tapeworms at the age of three weeks (take one dose 30 minutes after a meal), take one dose every three weeks until the age of three months

One and a half months to get puppies vaccine (coronavirus enteritis, parvovirus hemorrhagic enteritis, parainfluenza, infectious bronchitis, infectious canine hepatitis, canine distemper) At this time, you can start oral heartworm preventive medicine (take one month One tablet, taken continuously)

Two and a half months to get an 8-in-1 or 7-in-1 vaccine (coronavirus enteritis, parvovirus hemorrhagic enteritis, parainfluenza, infectious bronchitis, infectious canine hepatitis, canine distemper, leptospirosis, hemorrhagic jaundice) )

The last eight-in-one or seven-in-one vaccine for three and a half months (coronavirus enteritis, parvovirus hemorrhagic enteritis, parainfluenza, infectious bronchitis, infectious canine hepatitis, canine distemper, leptospirosis, hemorrhagic Jaundice) Rabies vaccine; identification chip can also be implanted at this time.

Oral care

The disease comes from the mouth, and the oral care of the dog is very necessary. The oral care of the dog is a big matter. If you don’t pay attention, it will threaten the dog’s health. The owner must pay attention to it.

1. It should be started when the dog is 6 months old, brushing his teeth 2-3 times a week, at the beginning the dog will not adapt to resistance, but if you insist on doing it, you will develop a better habit. First take a gauze strip dipped in a little saline and wrap it around your index finger. Wipe the gums and interdental space in sequence. The movements should be gentle to avoid damaging the gums. After the dog adapts, apply a little pet toothpaste to brush the teeth. This kind of toothpaste does not need to be rinsed. The mouth can be allowed to swallow dry on its own. The above operation can last for 2 weeks. After the dog is fully adapted, brush his teeth with a dog toothbrush. After long-term persistence, the ideal care effect can be obtained.

2. Don’t give your dog too much sweets, such as chocolate and sugar, to avoid caries. It can be fed to various bite bones such as vegetable sticks, which can not only exercise the bite force of the dog’s teeth, but also play the role of cleaning tartar and tartar.

3. In case of oral ulcers, red and swollen gums, etc., it can be cleaned with warm normal saline and rubbed with iodine glycerin or antibiotics. If the disease is severe, antibiotics should be used.

4. Supplementing the dog’s teeth often with some vitamin B drugs can reduce the incidence.

Dog Breeds Purchase

Purchase of adult dogs:

Firm bones and full body are preferred. Calculated from the height of the shoulders for adult dogs, it is 63.5 to 70 cm for male dogs and 58.5 to 65 cm for female dogs. The body shape is square, and the length is slightly larger than the height at the shoulders. The head is flat and wide, with slight wrinkles. The ears are set high, with the tips of the ears slightly triangular, hanging on the side of the head when resting; when alert, the ears are turned forward, the base of the ears is raised, and the highest part of the ears is flush with the top of the head. The eyes are slightly oval, and the eyelids are close to the eyeballs and are dark brown. The nose is black. The jaw muzzle is strong and straight. The lips are clean and the upper lip is slightly drooping. The teeth have a scissors bite. No missing teeth. The forelegs are straight and strong, and the hind limbs are well muscled. The feet are round and compact, with arched toes. The tail is long and crescent-shaped, with thick tail hair, which hangs down when resting, and rolls up when alert, but cannot be rolled or raised above the back. The tailbone is straight and can extend to the hock joint or lower. The coat is dense and medium in length, showing a bright, natural brilliance, so trimming the coat is not popular in competitions.

Purchase of puppies:

First, after the puppies are born, they should first mark the juveniles with normal color, dividing line, body shape, and pigmentation.

Second, the indicated puppies will open their eyes for about 12 to 15 days to see if the eyeball color is normal (blue eyes are disqualified and eliminated). Check the visual distance and eyelid condition of both eyes at 40 days

On the third day, on the 30th day, observe whether the torso ratio, head shape, and skeleton limbs are symmetrical.

Fourth, the 40th day is an important critical moment for puppies to be raised into racing dogs~ From the standing posture to observe whether they have the commanding attitude, whether the personality is calm, low curiosity, and interact with people more often. Is the ratio of the height from the bottom of the forelimb to the shoulder to the shoulder to the tail-to-hip ratio the golden ratio?

Fifth, observe the degree of compliance with each condition on the 120th day. At this time, the puppy has been fully socialized. From the completion of basic instructions and the degree of obedience to evaluate whether the dog is qualified for racing

Sixth, occlusion after tooth replacement.

Seventh, the traction of running is moderate.

Eighth, turn the puppy over and place it on the ground, and observe whether it can turn over quickly and spontaneously.

The hair of the Bernese Mountain Dog: the basic color is dark black, and the markings are rich rust and pure white. Symmetrical markings are ideal. The rust color extends from the eyes down to the tail. White may appear on the face, muzzle, front chest, and tail tip. White feet are also popular, but they cannot exceed the wrist.

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