A thorough dissection of shepherd types!

When you hear the word shepherd, many people may have the image of a fearless and wise police dog. In fact, there are 24 breeds of dogs named Shepherd. Although Germany is often thought of as the country of origin, it is actually a breed of dog that was born and developed in various countries. Therefore, from this time, we will introduce the shepherds of each country in three parts. In this article, in addition to the four breeds of German Shepherd Dog, White Swiss Shepherd Dog, Australian Shepherd Dog, and Belgian Shepherd Dog, which are familiar to us among such shepherds, Old German, the ancestor dog of many shepherds. Introducing the Shepherd Dog.

A thorough dissection of shepherd types!

What is the etymology of “shepherd”?

In Japan, the word shepherd is thought to refer to a breed of dog, but the shepherd “shepherd” means “sheep” and “gather, flock, guide a flock”. It is a word made by combining herd with.

For this reason, the person who guides the flock of sheep = “shepherd” and “care for the sheep”, and the “dog that controls and manages the flock of sheep” is called a shepherd dog. In other words, the shepherd dog is a word that describes the work that the breed has, just like a retriever that means a recovered dog.

Initially, the dog named Shepherd Dog was an indigenous medium-sized dog that was agile and highly capable throughout Europe.

5 popular breeds with “Shepherd” in the name

There are many breeds of dogs that have a shepherd in their name. Among them, in addition to the four breeds of shepherds that you can meet in Japan, we will introduce the Old German Shepherd Dog, which is considered to be the ancestor dog of many shepherds.

1. Endangered Old German Shepherd Dog

A thorough dissection of shepherd types!

The Old German Shepherd Dog is the basic dog of the German Shepherd Dog, which is currently active in various scenes such as military dogs, police dogs, and assistance dogs.

History of birth

Native to Germany: In Germany, high-performance herding dogs have long been sought, and bleeding has been practiced with an emphasis on ability. At that time, work ability was more important than the appearance of the breed, so a variety of indigenous dogs from all over Germany worked as herding dogs.

In the 1880s, Lieutenant Colonel von Stephanitz, who planned to create a capable military dog, selected the most capable dog from working dogs all over Germany and used it as the basis for military dogs. This basic dog was later called the Old German Shepherd Dog to distinguish it from the German Shepherd Dog. Although it is considered to be a German original herding dog, it is a rare breed because it is not registered as a breed in the breed dog group, so it is currently being protected as an endangered breed. In addition, a breed called Shiloh Shepherd has been created in an attempt to restore a breed closer to the Old German Shepherd Dog.

Body characteristics

The Old German Shepherd Dog is said to have an appearance similar to that of a long-haired German Shepherd Dog, but there is a history of breeding that emphasizes the ability as a herding dog rather than the appearance, and the appearance is rich in variety. It is said to be. Another factor is that there are no fixed breed standards because the breeds are not registered with dog breed groups or breed groups. The main physical characteristics are introduced below.

Height: 55-65 cm

Weight: 22-40kg

Hair: There are many individuals with relatively long hair, and the colors include black, brown, tan, and gray, and they are composed of a single color or multiple colors.

Personality traits

Created as a capable herding dog, the Old German Shepherd Dog is characterized by high loyalty to its owners and their families, hard-working, smart and well-trained. In addition, since he had a role as a guard dog on the ranch, he is wary of foreign enemies and strangers.

2. German shepherd dog known for military dogs and police dogs

A thorough dissection of shepherd types!

The German Shepherd dog, which is active in every scene in the world, is a popular breed as a domestic dog because of its wise and faithful personality.

History of birth

Native to Germany: The German Shepherd Dog, famous as a working dog, is a breed created from the Old German Shepherd Dog selected by Mr. von Stephanitz, who was planning to create a military dog. The criteria for the selection were cleverness, agility, strength, and sense of smell.

At that time, what was called the German Shepherd Dog was the current Old German Shepherd Dog, but in order to distinguish between pastoralist dogs and military dogs, the dog breed that was born as a military dog ​​was changed to German Shepherd Dog The dog that was called German Shepherd was renamed to Old German Shepherd Dog from the meaning of “original”. In 1899, the first German Shepherd dog was registered as a breed.

Body characteristics

The German Shepherd Dog Association, which is a member of the Kennel Club in Germany, has strict standards for German Shepherd Dogs, which have many physical genetic disorders.

Body height: It is stipulated that the physical condition is about 10 to 17% longer than the body height, and the standard is 60 to 65 cm for males and 55 to 60 cm for females.

Weight: Male 30-40kg, Female 22-32kg

Hair: Double coat. German shepherd dogs are accepted in a variety of coat colors such as black, reddish brown, brown, yellow, light gray, black & cream, black & tan, bicolor, tricolor, but usually in single color or saddle. Contains a saddle-like marking called. Also, JKC does not allow white, but AKC allows white.

Personality traits

The German Shepherd Dog, with its intelligence and training, is characterized by a well-balanced personality with courage and toughness. Since he is loyal to his owner and has a high defense instinct, he is active as a working dog such as a police dog, a military dog, and a drug detection dog. I have the potential.

3. White Swiss Shepherd Dog, which is rapidly gaining popularity due to its beautiful appearance

A thorough dissection of shepherd types!

As a pure white shepherd dog, the white Swiss shepherd dog is a dog breed that has become popular in Japan in recent years and the number of registered dogs is increasing.

History of birth

Native to Switzerland: A white shepherd dog born in the United States was bred by enthusiastic breeders in the United States and Canada, and the white shepherd dog was imported into Switzerland, which is the origin of this breed. Swiss breeders strive to improve the weakness of German shepherd dogs and create dogs with a milder personality, a relatively new breed registered as the White Swiss Shepherd Dog in 1991 in Switzerland. is.

Body characteristics

White Swiss Shepherd is characterized by its beautiful white coat. A large dog with a muscular, solid skeleton similar to the German Shepherd dog, which is also a basic dog.

Height: Slightly oversized is acceptable, with males 60-66 cm and females 55-61 cm as standard.

Weight: Male 30-40kg, Female 25-35kg

Hair: Double coat. As the dog breed name suggests, pure white coat is the standard.

Personality traits

Since the German Shepherd dog is a basic dog, it has a high ability as a working dog and has a strong sense of responsibility. It’s also smart and trainable, but it’s a breed that needs to be well trained. High athletic ability is also a feature of the White Swiss Shepherd Dog, which is suitable for enjoying dog sports such as agility together.

4. Country of origin is American Australian Shepherd Dog

A thorough dissection of shepherd types!

Rather than a shepherd dog, the Australian Shepherd dog, which looks like a collie breed such as the Shetland Shepherd dog, is actually a breed native to the United States.

History of birth

Native to the United States: Although native to the United States, there are various theories about the origin of the Australian Shepherd dog, which is said to have been born in the Basque Country near the border between Spain and France. The indigenous dog, which was born from the creation of the Great Pyrenees and several Collie breeds, was world-famous as a talented sheep dog in the Basque Country. The most prominent theory is that the Basques who traveled to Australia with the sheep dog bred collies and border collies, and the current Australian Shepherd was born.

Later, the sheep dog that went to California with the Basques was said to have been named after the sheep dog from Australia because it became established in the United States as a cowboy sheep dog. The Australian Shepherd Dog does not inherit the Old German Shepherd pedigree. Shepherd = a breed of dog that retains the original meaning of the word “dog that controls a flock of sheep.”

Body characteristics

As a cowboy herding dog, the Australian Shepherd features a muscular, supple body and a wide variety of coat colors. In addition, a short tail called a bobbed tail or a tail that is docked is also a characteristic of the Australian Shepherd.

Height: Male 51-58 cm, Female 46-53 cm

Weight: Male approx. 22.6-29.4 kg, Female approx. 18.1-24.9 kg

Hair: Double coat. It features a wide variety of hair colors such as blue merle, black, red marl, and red.

Personality traits

The Australian Shepherd Dog, which inherited the Border Collie and Collie’s blood and was active as a herding dog with a cowboy, is characterized by its liveliness, agility, toughness, and high athletic ability. It is also suitable for families with small children because they are wise and loyal to their owners and can treat their families with love. Due to its high intelligence, athletic ability, and training, it is active not only as a service dog such as a service dog and drug detection dog, but also in various dog sports such as agility, disc, and flyball.

5. There are 4 types of Belgian Shepherd dogs

A thorough dissection of shepherd types!

There are four types of Belgian Shepherd dogs, Malinois, Groenendael, Turbulen, and Rakenoa, each with its own characteristics.

History of the birth of the Belgian Shepherd Dog

Native to Belgium. The Belgian Shepherd Dog is an ancient Belgian sheep dog. In Belgium, livestock farming has been flourishing in various parts of the country, and herding dogs have also developed independently in each region. Records indicate that there were many sheep dogs in Belgium in the 17th century, but in the late 1800s when Belgium became independent, domestic sheep dogs were protected, and the sheep dogs that were in the country at that time were collected. It was.

A scholar who was worried that the number of dogs had dropped sharply during the war carried out conservation activities aimed at establishing a unique breed, but four types of herding dogs were registered as Belgian Shepherd dogs because their appearances differ greatly depending on the region. it was done.

AKC classifies them as unique breeds such as Malinois, Groenendael, Turbulen, and Rakenoa according to their coat characteristics, but JKC registers all four types as Belgian Shepherd dogs.

Groenendael’s personality and hair characteristics

A beautiful long coat with a black coat that is synonymous with Belgian Shepherd. It is said that the name comes from the castle of Groenendael, which was owned by the creator, Nicola Rose. Groenendael, who had a tough job as a sheepdog in a remote village, is sometimes called the Belgian Sheepdog. A breed of dog that is loyal to its owner, agile, courageous, cheerful and cheerful, and has a strong desire for exercise. I love doing something with my owner, so I can enjoy dog ​​sports together.

Height: Male 60.9-66 cm, Female 55.8-60.9 cm

Weight: Male 24.9-34 kg, Female 20.4-27.2 kg

Hair: Double coat that can withstand any climate. The black long coat is a major feature of Groenendael. One of the features is that there is little hair loss even though it is a double coat with a large amount.

Tervure’s personality and hair characteristics

The Belgian Shepherd Turbulen, which looks like a German Shepherd dog in a long coat, is a breed of dog born in the small town of Turbulen in the Flanders region of Belgium. In the United States, it is registered as Belgian Tervure. In the 19th century, Turbulen was born as an all-round herding dog by mixing and bleeding Groenendael and local sheep dogs by a breeder who was looking for an excellent dog for both herding dogs and guard dogs.

One theory is that the Flemish dog Patrasche may be this Tervure. Despite its elegant appearance, it is lively, alert, mild-mannered, intelligent and loyal to its owner, but it also has a lonely side. Because of its high athletic ability, dog sports that can be enjoyed with the owner are suitable.

Height: Male 60.9-66 cm, Female 55.8-60.9 cm

Weight: Male 24.9-34 kg, Female 20.4-27.2 kg

Hair: Long-haired, double-coated Turbulen should have a black mask, and the body should be a fawn or pale yellow with a black overlay.

Marinoa’s personality and hair characteristics

Born in the town of Mechelen, an art city on the north side of Brussels, Marinoa is named after the town’s name Marina, and features a German shepherd dog-like appearance. Malinois, also known as the basic dog of the four types of Belgian Shepherd, is registered as Belgian Malinois in the United States. Malinois is also known for being more vigilant and has a stronger sense of mission than German shepherd dogs, and is active as a police dog and a military dog ​​of the US Navy.

It is also not suitable for beginners as it has a high energy level, is tough and intelligent, but rarely shows aggression. However, a well-trained Malinois is a good partner for the owner.

Height: Male 60.9-66 cm, Female 55.8-60.9 cm

Weight: Male 24.9-34 kg, Female 20.4-27.2 kg

Hair: Marinoa is the only short hair of the Belgian Shepart 4 types. A highly water repellent double coat featuring a black mask, fawn and black overlay.

Rakenoa’s personality and hair characteristics

Among the four types of Belgian shepherds, Rakenoa has a unique appearance and is a rare breed in Japan as well as in the world. It was named after the town of Leken, Belgium. Rakenoa, who was bred in the Belgian royal palace, is said to have been a favorite of Queen Marie Henriette, wife of King Leopold II of Belgium at the time.

The oldest Belgian Shepherd variety, Rakenoa, is always close to its owner, and its loyalty is so nicknamed “Shadow.” At that time, he was active not only as a guard dog for sheep, but also as a dog watching over the crops in the field. Although endangered after World War II, it was protected by enthusiasts and is now bred more in the Netherlands than in Belgium.

Height: Male 60.9-66 cm, Female 55.8-60.9 cm

Weight: 24.9-29.4kg

Hair: Features a double-coated rough or straight coat with a waving tinge. The color of the coat is mainly fawn, with a slight black overlay on the muzzle and tail.

Shepherd dog meant sheep dog!

Shepherd dogs that have evolved to suit the causative needs of each country. Although they differ in appearance and personality, all shepherd dogs have the same high athletic ability, intelligence and loyalty. This project introduces such a shepherd dog in three parts. There are many shepherd dogs in the world. This time we introduced the popular shepherd dog, but next time we will introduce the shepherd native to Europe.

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